Affiche Understanding Calculus: Problems, Solutions, and Tips
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Calculus is the greatest mathematical breakthrough since the pioneering discoveries of the ancient Greeks. Without it, we wouldn't have spaceflight, skyscrapers, jet planes, economic modeling, accurate weather forecasting, modern medical technologies, or any of the countless other achievements we take for granted in today's world. Indeed, calculus is so versatile and its techniques so diverse that it trains you to view problems, no matter how difficult, as solvable until proved otherwise. And the habit of turning a problem over in your mind, choosing an approach, and then working through a solution teaches you to think clearly—which is why the study of calculus is so crucial for improving your cognitive skills and why it is a prerequisite for admission to most top universities.


Saisons & épisodes Les résumés de tous les épisodes de Understanding Calculus: Problems, Solutions, and Tips

S01E01 A Preview of Calculus 00/00/0000 Calculus is the mathematics of change, a field with many important applications in science, engineering, medicine, business, and other disciplines. Begin by surveying the goals of the course. Then get your feet wet by investigating the classic tangent line problem, which illustrates the concept of limits.
S01E02 Review—Graphs, Models, and Functions 00/00/0000 In the first of two review lectures on precalculus, examine graphs of equations and properties such as symmetry and intercepts. Also explore the use of equations to model real life and begin your study of functions, which Professor Edwards calls the most important concept in mathematics.
S01E03 Review—Functions and Trigonometry 00/00/0000 Continue your review of precalculus by looking at different types of functions and how they can be identified by their distinctive shapes when graphed. Then review trigonometric functions, using both the right triangle definition as well as the unit circle definition, which measures angles in radians rather than degrees.
S01E04 Finding Limits 00/00/0000 Jump into real calculus by going deeper into the concept of limits introduced in Lecture 1. Learn the informal, working definition of limits and how to determine a limit in three different ways: numerically, graphically, and analytically. Also discover how to recognize when a given function does not have a limit.
S01E05 An Introduction to Continuity 00/00/0000 Broadly speaking, a function is continuous if there is no interruption in the curve when its graph is drawn. Explore the three conditions that must be met for continuity—along with applications of associated ideas, such as the greatest integer function and the intermediate value theorem.
S01E06 Infinite Limits and Limits at Infinity 00/00/0000 Infinite limits describe the behavior of functions that increase or decrease without bound, in which the asymptote is the specific value that the function approaches without ever reaching it. Learn how to analyze these functions, and try some examples from relativity theory and biology.
S01E07 The Derivative and the Tangent Line Problem 00/00/0000 Building on what you have learned about limits and continuity, investigate derivatives, which are the foundation of differential calculus. Develop the formula for defining a derivative, and survey the history of the concept and its different forms of notation.
S01E08 Basic Differentiation Rules 00/00/0000 Practice several techniques that make finding derivatives relatively easy: the power rule, the constant multiple rule, sum and difference rules, plus a shortcut to use when sine and cosine functions are involved. Then see how derivatives are the key to determining the rate of change in problems involving objects in motion.
S01E09 Product and Quotient Rules 00/00/0000 Learn the formulas for finding derivatives of products and quotients of functions. Then use the quotient rule to derive formulas for the trigonometric functions not covered in the previous lecture. Also investigate higher-order derivatives, differential equations, and horizontal tangents.
S01E10 The Chain Rule 00/00/0000 Discover one of the most useful of the differentiation rules, the chain rule, which allows you to find the derivative of a composite of two functions. Explore different examples of this technique, including a problem from physics that involves the motion of a pendulum.
S01E11 Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates 00/00/0000 Conquer the final strategy for finding derivatives: implicit differentiation, used when it's difficult to solve a function for y. Apply this rule to problems in related rates—for example, the rate at which a camera must move to track the space shuttle at a specified time after launch.
S01E12 Extrema on an Interval 00/00/0000 Having covered the rules for finding derivatives, embark on the first of five lectures dealing with applications of these techniques. Derivatives can be used to find the absolute maximum and minimum values of functions, known as extrema, a vital tool for analyzing many real-life situations.
S01E13 Increasing and Decreasing Functions 00/00/0000 Use the first derivative to determine where graphs are increasing or decreasing. Next, investigate Rolle's theorem and the mean value theorem, one of whose consequences is that during a car trip, your actual speed must correspond to your average speed during at least one point of your journey.
S01E14 Concavity and Points of Inflection 00/00/0000 What does the second derivative reveal about a graph? It describes how the curve bends—whether it is concave upward or downward. You determine concavity much as you found the intervals where a graph was increasing or decreasing, except this time you use the second derivative.
S01E15 Curve Sketching and Linear Approximations 00/00/0000 By using calculus, you can be certain that you have discovered all the properties of the graph of a function. After learning how this is done, focus on the tangent line to a graph, which is a convenient approximation for values of the function that lie close to the point of tangency.
S01E16 Applications—Optimization Problems, Part 1 00/00/0000 Attack real-life problems in optimization, which requires finding the relative extrema of different functions by differentiation. Calculate the optimum size for a box, and the largest area that can be enclosed by a circle and a square made from a given length of wire.
S01E17 Applications—Optimization Problems, Part 2 00/00/0000 Conclude your investigation of differential calculus with additional problems in optimization. For success with such word problems, Professor Edwards stresses the importance of first framing the problem with precalculus, reducing the equation to one independent variable, and then using calculus to find and verify the answer.
S01E18 Antiderivatives and Basic Integration Rules 00/00/0000 Up until now, you've calculated a derivative based on a given function. Discover how to reverse the procedure and determine the function based on the derivative. This approach is known as obtaining the antiderivative, or integration. Also learn the notation for integration.
S01E19 The Area Problem and the Definite Integral 00/00/0000 One of the classic problems of integral calculus is finding areas bounded by curves. This was solved for simple curves by the ancient Greeks. See how a more powerful method was later developed that produces a number called the definite integral, and learn the relevant notation.
S01E20 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 1 00/00/0000 The two essential ideas of this course—derivatives and integrals—are connected by the fundamental theorem of calculus, one of the most important theorems in mathematics. Get an intuitive grasp of this deep relationship by working several problems and surveying a proof.
S01E21 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 2 00/00/0000 Try examples using the second fundamental theorem of calculus, which allows you to let the upper limit of integration be a variable. In the process, explore more relationships between differentiation and integration, and discover how they are almost inverses of each other.
S01E22 Integration by Substitution 00/00/0000 Investigate a straightforward technique for finding antiderivatives, called integration by substitution. Based on the chain rule, it enables you to convert a difficult problem into one that's easier to solve by using the variable u to represent a more complicated expression
S01E23 Numerical Integration 00/00/0000 When calculating a definite integral, the first step of finding the antiderivative can be difficult or even impossible. Learn the trapezoid rule, one of several techniques that yield a close approximation to the definite integral. Then do a problem involving a plot of land bounded by a river.
S01E24 Natural Logarithmic Function—Differentiation 00/00/0000 Review the properties of logarithms in base 10. Then see how the so-called natural base for logarithms, e, has important uses in calculus and is one of the most significant numbers in mathematics. Learn how such natural logarithms help to simplify derivative calculations.
S01E25 Natural Logarithmic Function—Integration 00/00/0000 Continue your investigation of logarithms by looking at some of the consequences of the integral formula developed in the previous lecture. Next, change gears and review inverse functions at the precalculus level, preparing the way for a deeper exploration of the subject in coming lectures.
S01E26 Exponential Function 00/00/0000 The inverse of the natural logarithmic function is the exponential function, perhaps the most important function in all of calculus. Discover that this function has an amazing property: It is its own derivative! Also see the connection between the exponential function and the bell-shaped curve in probability.
S01E27 Bases other than e 00/00/0000 Extend the use of the logarithmic and exponential functions to bases other than e, exploiting this approach to solve a problem in radioactive decay. Also learn to find the derivatives of such functions, and see how e emerges in other mathematical contexts, including the formula for continuous compound interest.
S01E28 Inverse Trigonometric Functions 00/00/0000 Turn to the last set of functions you will need in your study of calculus, inverse trigonometric functions. Practice using some of the formulas for differentiating these functions. Then do an entertaining problem involving how fast the rotating light on a police car sweeps across a wall and whether you can evade it.
S01E29 Area of a Region between 2 Curves 00/00/0000 Revisit the area problem and discover how to find the area of a region bounded by two curves. First imagine that the region is divided into representative rectangles. Then add up an infinite number of these rectangles, which corresponds to a definite integral.
S01E30 Volume—The Disk Method 00/00/0000 Learn how to calculate the volume of a solid of revolution—an object that is symmetrical around its axis of rotation. As in the area problem in the previous lecture, you imagine adding up an infinite number of slices—in this case, of disks rather than rectangles—which yields a definite integral.
S01E31 Volume—The Shell Method 00/00/0000 Apply the shell method for measuring volumes, comparing it with the disk method on the same shape. Then find the volume of a doughnut-shaped object called a torus, along with the volume for a figure called Gabriel's Horn, which is infinitely long but has finite volume.
S01E32 Applications—Arc Length and Surface Area 00/00/0000 Investigate two applications of calculus that are at the heart of engineering: measuring arc length and surface area. One of your problems is to determine the length of a cable hung between two towers, a shape known as a catenary. Then examine a peculiar paradox of Gabriel's Horn.
S01E33 Basic Integration Rules 00/00/0000 Review integration formulas studied so far, and see how to apply them in various examples. Then explore cases in which a calculator gives different answers from the ones obtained by hand calculation, learning why this occurs. Finally, Professor Edwards gives advice on how to succeed in introductory calculus.
S01E34 Other Techniques of Integration 00/00/0000 Closing your study of integration techniques, explore a powerful method for finding antiderivatives: integration by parts, which is based on the product rule for derivatives. Use this technique to calculate area and volume. Then focus on integrals involving products of trigonometric functions.
S01E35 Differential Equations and Slope Fields 00/00/0000 Explore slope fields as a method for getting a picture of possible solutions to a differential equation without having to solve it, examining several problems of the type that appear on the Advanced Placement exam. Also look at a solution technique for differential equations called separation of variables.
S01E36 Applications of Differential Equations 00/00/0000 Use your calculus skills in three applications of differential equations: first, calculate the radioactive decay of a quantity of plutonium; second, determine the initial population of a colony of fruit flies; and third, solve one of Professor Edwards's favorite problems by using Newton's law of cooling to predict the cooling time for a cup of coffee.

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